System & Process Supervisor for Linux

watchdogd(8) is an advanced system and process supervisor daemon. It can monitor critical system resources, supervise the heartbeat of processes, record deadline transgressions, and reset the system on software lockups.

When a system comes back up after a reset, watchdogd determines the reset cause and records it in a logfile for later analysis by an operator or network management system (NMS). This information can be used to put the system in an operational safe state, or non-operational safe state.

What is a watchdog timer?

Most server and laptop motherboards today come equipped with a watchdog timer (WDT). It is a small timer connected to the reset circuitry so that it can reset the board if the timer expires. The system watchdog driver, and this daemon, periodically “kick”, or reset the timer to prevent it from firing.

Most embedded systems utilise watchdog timers as a way to automatically recover from malfunctions.

The Linux kernel provides a common userspace interface /dev/watchdog, created automatically when the appropriate watchdog driver is loaded. If your board does not have a WDT, the kernel provides a “softdog” module which in many cases can be good enough.

The idea of a watchdog daemon in userspace is to run in the background of your system. When there is no more CPU time for the watchdog daemon to run it will fail to “kick” the WDT. This will in turn cause the WDT to reboot the system. This background process can of course also be used to monitor other aspects of the system.

What can watchdogd do?

Without arguments watchdogd runs in the background, monitoring the the CPU, and as long as there is CPU time it “kicks” the WDT chip (via the driver). However, with few command line options it can also monitor other aspect of the system, such as:

  • Load average
  • Memory leaks
  • File descriptor leaks
  • Process live locks (PMON)


watchdogd [-hnsVvx] [-a WARN[,REBOOT]] [-T SEC] [-t SEC] [/dev/watchdog]

  -n, --foreground         Start in foreground (background is default)
  -s, --syslog             Use syslog, even if running in foreground
  -l, --loglevel=LVL       Log level: none, err, info, notice*, debug
  -T, --timeout=SEC        HW watchdog timer (WDT) timeout in SEC seconds
  -t, --interval=SEC       WDT kick interval in SEC seconds, default: 10
  -x, --safe-exit          Disable watchdog on exit from SIGINT/SIGTERM
  -a, --load-average=W[,R] Enable load average check WARN,REBOOT
  -m, --meminfo=W[,R]      Enable memory leak check, WARN,REBOOT
  -f, --filenr=W[,R]       Enable file descriptor leak check, WARN,REBOOT
  -p, --pmon[=PRIO]        Enable process monitor, run at elevated RT prio
                           Default RT prio when active: SCHED_RR @98
  -v, --version            Display version and exit
  -h, --help               Display this help message and exit

By default, with any arguments given on the command line, watchdogd opens /dev/watchdog, forks to the background and then tries to to set a 20 sec WDT timeout. It then kicks every 10 sec. See below, in the Operation section, for more information.


watchdogd -a 0.8,0.9 -T 120 -t 30 /dev/watchdog2

Most WDT drivers only support 120 sec as lowest timeout, but watchdogd tries to set 20 sec timeout. Example values above are recommendations.

watchdogd runs at the default UNIX priority (nice) level, unless the process monitor is activated, in which case it runs at an elevated real time priority.


To force a kernel watchdog reboot, watchdogd supports SIGPWR, used by some init(1) systems to delegate a reboot. What it does is to set the WDT timer to the lowest possible value (1 sec), close the connection to /dev/watchdog, and wait for WDT reboot. It waits at most 3x the WDT timeout before announcing HW WDT failure and forcing a reboot.

watchdogd(8) supports optional monitoring of several system resources. First, system load average monitoring can be enabled with -a 0.8,0.9. Second, the memory leak detector -m 0.9,0.95. Third, file descriptor leak detector -f 0.8,0.95. All very useful on an embedded system.

The two values, separated by a comma, are the warning and reboot levels in percent. For the loadavg monitoring it is important to know that the trigger levels are normalized. This means watchdogd does not care how many CPU cores your system has online. If the kernel /proc/loadavg file shows 3.9 3.0 2.5 on a four-core CPU, watchdogd will consider this as a load of 0.98 0.75 0.63, i.e. divided by four. Only the one (1) and five (5) minute average values are used. For more information on the UNIX load average, see this StackOverflow question.

The RAM usage monitor only triggers on systems without swap. This is detected by reading the file /proc/meminfo, looking for the SwapTotal: value. For more details on the underlying mechanisms of file descriptor usage, see this article. For more info on the details of memory usage, see this article.

watchdogd v2.0 comes with a process monitor, pmon. It must be enabled and a monitored client must connect using the API for pmon to start. As soon pmon starts it raises the real-time priority of watchdogd to 98 to be able to ensure proper monitoring of its clients.

Pmon API

To use pmon a client must have its source code instrumented with at least a “subscribe” and a “kick” call. Commonly this is achieved by adding the wdog_pmon_kick() call to the main event loop.

All API calls, except wdog_pmon_ping(), return POSIX OK(0) or negative value with errno set on error. The wdog_pmon_subscribe() call returns a positive integer (including zero) for the watchdog id.

 * Enable or disable watchdogd at runtime.
int wdog_enable           (int enable);
int wdog_status           (int *enabled);

 * Check if watchdogd API is actively responding,
 * returns %TRUE(1) or %FALSE(0)
int wdog_pmon_ping        (void);

 * Register with pmon, timeout in msec.  Return value is the `id`
 * to be used with the `ack` in subsequent kick()/unsubscribe()
int wdog_pmon_subscribe   (char *label, int timeout, int *ack);
int wdog_pmon_unsubscribe (int id, int ack);
int wdog_pmon_kick        (int id, int *ack);

It is highly recommended to use an event loop like libev, libuev, or similar. For such libraries one can simply add a timer callback for the kick to run periodically to monitor proper operation of the client.


For other applications, identify your main loop, its max period time and instrument it like this:

int ack, wid;

/* Library will use process' name on NULL first arg. */
wid = wdog_pmon_subscribe(NULL, 10000, &ack);
if (-1 == wid)
        ;      /* Error handling */

while (1) {
        wdog_pmon_kick(wid, &ack);

This simple example subscribes to the watchdog with a 10 sec timeout. The received wid is used in the call to wdog_pmon_kick(), along with the received ack value. Which is changed every time the application calls wdog_pmon_kick(). The application should of course check the return value of wdog_pmon_subscribe() for errors, that code is left out of the example to make it easier to read.

See also the example/ex1.c in the source distribution. This is used by the automatic tests.


By default, watchdogd forks off a daemon in the background, opens the /dev/watchdog device, attempts to set the default WDT timeout to 20 seconds and then goes into an endless loop where it kicks the watchdog every 10 seconds.

If a device driver does not support setting the WDT timeout, watchdogd attempts to query the actual (possibly hard coded) watchdog timeout and then uses half that time as the kick interval.

When watchdogd backgrounds itself syslog is implicitly used for all informational and debug messages. If a user requests to run the daemon in the foreground watchdogd will also log to STDERR and STDOUT, unless the user gives the --syslog argument to force use of syslog.


The code has both INFO() and DEBUG() statements sprinkled almost everywhere. Use the --loglevel=debug command line option to enable full debug output to stderr or the syslog, depending on how you start watchdogd.

Build & Install

watchdogd is tailored for Linux systems and should build against any (old) C libray. However, watchdogd v2.1 and later require two external libraries that were previously a built-in, libite and libuEv. Neither of them should present any surprises, both use de facto standard configure scripts and support pkg-config which the watchdogd configure script use to locate requried libraries and header files.

Hence, the regular ./configure && make is usually sufficient to build watchdogd. But, if libraries are installed in non-standard locations you may need to provide their paths:

PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/opt/lib/pkgconfig:/home/ian/lib/pkgconfig ./configure

To build the source from GIT, see below.

Origin & References

watchdogd(8) is an improved version of the original, created by Michele d’Amico and adapted to uClinux-dist by Mike Frysinger. It is maintained by Joachim Nilsson collaboratively at GitHub.

The original code in uClinux-dist is available in the public domain, whereas this version is distributed under the ISC license. See the file LICENSE for more details on this.

The logo, “Watch Dog Detective Taking Notes”, is licensed for use by the watchdogd project, copyright © Ron Leishman.

Issue tracker and GIT repository available at GitHub:


If you find bugs or want to contribute fixes or features, check out the code from GitHub:

git clone
cd watchdogd

The script runs autoconf, automake, et al to create the configure script and such generated files not part of the VCS tree. For more details, see the file CONTRIBUTING.