# The Marvellous libev

A very good friend mine recently told me about a neat event library, libev. Usually when he drops me links like that it takes me a couple of years to react and finally adopt.

This time it only took me about a month.

He has actually showed me lots of very useful stuff throughout the years, and even though we used GNU/Linux at university, he was one those hard core people who showed me the path into a successful full-time career as a Linux developer. I don’t think I have ever thanked you properly for that, Jakob!

As it turns out libev was exactly what I have been looking for, for years! Way back in 2005 when I switched jobs I started working with a scary home brew code base ported to Linux from VxWorks. From the original code only the basic state machine, basic election algorithms and some other minor glue code remains. I have slowly refactored the code base into something, hopefully, more maintainable.

The one missing piece was the timer implementation. The old code used to create a new pthread for each new timeout. I tried replacing it with code of my own, based on Don Libes “Implementing Software Timers”. As it turns out libev already has (working) timers, in fact, it has taken an even more complete approach and made almost everything into events with callbacks, perfect for state machines!

After having done some initial testing of the libev timers I put on a big smile and fired up Emacs to investigate what other parts of that home brew code base were eligible for replacement, when i suddenly hit me: the state machine consists of a couple of threads that pass messages between them using msgsnd() and msgrcv(), bad old XSI IPC primitives. Bad guys that don’t use standard file descriptors. A quick and dirty hack confirms it. I started looking around and I had a vague recollection of some message primitives that actually used file descriptors. On the mailing list Marc (Lehman) was as always extremely quick to answer my questions and with his help I eventually found the mq_overview(7) man page:

Polling message queue descriptors On Linux, a message queue descriptor is actually a file descriptor, and can be monitored using select(2), poll(2), or epoll(7). This is not portable.

Wow, I could hardly wait until I, later that day, could get my hands on the keyboard again and try it out! Yes, the POSIX message queue primitives work! Here is my sample message queue code. Compile it in Emacs with M-x compile (I have that bound to F9 in my .emacs, Borland IDE style :)

Thus far I must say I can really recommend libev! Even though it isn’t ISC licensed, it’s dual licensed under the 2-clause BSD license and the GNU GPL. In my case I’ll go with the 2-clause BSD license, which according to Wikipedia is “functionally equivalent” to the MIT license.